Monday, August 10, 2009

Professional Practice Blog 3 Ethics Due date: Friday 14th August Hannah Howley

Professional Practice
Blog 3
Due date: Friday 14th August
Hannah Howley

Massage therapy and relationship with ethical considerations.

Ethics have become more and more increasingly particular in hands-on practices such as Massage Therapy. Agreeing upon which is ‘good’ or ‘bad’ in the way of ethical considerations remains to be difficult.

We, as massage therapists, remain responsible for the health, safety and comfort of our clients and it is our duty to maintain these responsibilities.
Ethical considerations, to name a few that we need to take in to consideration are;

- Race & Colour
- Culture
- Age
- Sex
- Religion

All of these are important topics to look at. All clients are going to be individual and different from the client before and it is important to find out such things about your client before you ask them to do things for you, i.e. taking off clothing and lying under drapes. With regards to race and religion, this can be seen as culturally offensive and inappropriate (including any other person). Communication is very important when taking clients through your chosen assessment procedure. You have to make sure that they are aware of what you are going to be doing, where about on the body you will be working and whether or not they are comfortable with that decision. You, as a massage therapist also have to be ready to understand and respect the choice of the client if their decision does not match your own.

Client Relationships

Client relationships must be maintained at the highest level of interpersonal relationships. It must be of utmost professionalism. According to the code of ethics written by MNZ;

- A practitioner shall endeavour to serve the best interests of their clients at all times and provide the highest quality service possible.

- A practitioner shall at all times respect the confidence of their client and diagnostic
findings acquired during consultation and/or treatment shall not be divulged to anyone
without the client’s consent, except when required by law or where failure to do so
would constitute a menace or danger to the client or another member of the community.

- A practitioner shall not enter into an intimate or sexual relationship with a patient whilst
the patient is under their care. (MNZ Code of Ethics, pdf)

The Massage Therapist and their responsibilities to themselves,

It is ethical, that the massage therapist, or anyone working in the business, strives to achieve professional appearance and image of themselves and the profession in general.
The MT should have all qualifications displayed on the wall or on a desk (any where visible to the clients) and it should be done so honestly.
The MT should at all times make sure the treatment and treatment process is coincided with the relevant scope of practice and that all techniques used are suitable to the existing condition.

Practitioners should always maintain the professionalism of the clinic. It must always have a code of ethics and clients rights and responsibilities visible on entry to the client. The MT must not interfere with any ongoing treatment given by any other practitioner and must call the other health care provider if there are any queries and only if you get client consent. The MT must not criticise the work of any other practitioner as this is seen as very rude and it will make you seem like you are superior to others and it doesn’t look good.


The Ethics of Touch, Ben Benjamin and Cherie Sohnen-Moe. (SMA Inc., Tucson, Ariz., 2003.)

MNZ Code of Ethics. pdf

My Own Thoughts

Fritz, S. (2004). Mosby’s fundamentals of therapeutic massage (3rd ed.). Missouri: Mosby.

Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Dementia Condition 2 Due date 14 August 2009 Hannah Howley

Condition 2
Due date 14 August 2009
Hannah Howley

Description of the condition:

Dementia AKA Alzheimer’s Disease meaning ‘deprived of mind’ is a disease of the mind and can also be a result of brain damage or injury. It is a cognitive impairment and may be static. It is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain causing such things like memory loss, personality changes and eventually, death.


Age and degeneration are the main causes of the disease. Most etiologies contribute to loss of intellectual function, memory impairment and loss of judgement. The precise cause of the disease is not fully understood.


Dementia is far more common than that of the geriatric population and can develop at any stage of adulthood. It generally just affects older people. Although it is possible to develop dementia early in life, the chances of doing so increase dramatically with age.
Less than 10 percent of cases of dementia are due to causes which may presently be reversed with treatment
One in 50 people between the ages of 65 and 70 have a form of dementia, compared to one in five people over the age of 80.
Dementia affects approximately 5% of the US population or about 4.5million people. It affects half of all people living in rest homes. The incidence of Dementia increases with age.

Signs and symptoms:

Symptoms of dementia include loss of memory, confusion and problems with speech and understanding. Most etiologies contribute to loss of intellectual function, memory impairment and loss of judgement.

Symptoms of early dementia:

- Word finding difficulty
- Forgetting names, appointments and losing thing
- Difficulty performing familiar tasks i.e. driving, cooking, household chores
- Uncharacteristic behaviour
- Mood swings and Poor judgement

Intermediate Dementia

- Worsening of symptoms seen in early dementia
- Unable to carry out tasks i.e. washing, getting dressed, using the toilet
- Disrupted sleep
- Unable to learn new things
- Confusion
- Hallucinations
- Falling over
- Poor concentration and abnormal moods
Severe Dementia

- Worsening of symptoms seen in early and intermediate dementia
- Complete dependence on others for daily living
- Maybe unable to walk or move around
- Impairment of other movements i.e. swallowing
- Complete loss of long and short term memory
- Complications with nutrition, bladder control and infections

Indications for massage therapy:

According to MedicalNewsToday, Massage could offer a drug-free way to treat agitation and depression among dementia patients, but there are still too few studies about the practice to know for sure, according to a review of recent research.

In two studies, hand massage and gentle touching during conversation helped ease agitation and restore appetite in dementia patients over short periods of about an hour.
It can also counteract anxiety and depression which are also factors involved with dementia.
Massage also provokes a sense of relaxation and safety with soft and slow massage techniques i.e. relaxation massage with effleurage and petrissage strokes would be effective in engaging the nervous system and relaxing it.
Dementia clients respond well to touch. Massage does not increase or decrease the process of the disease but does improve the quality of life for clients to the extent that they become noticeably less disruptive.

Contraindications for massage therapy:

It is very important to keep in mind that most of these clients will be elderly and will generally have other on-going problems that may or may not contraindicate various kinds of body work. Also, the massage therapist must remember that communication will be quite difficult and it becomes the therapist’s responsibility to communicate effective non verbal signals about the bodywork to make sure that the client understands. Therapists must always be sensitive to the clients emotional and mental state/


Dementia, Retrieved on 31st July 2009 from

Frtiz S (2004). Mosby’s Fundamentals of Therapeutic massage, 3rd edition. Mosby, Missouri

Werner, R. (2005). A Massage Therapists Guide to Pathology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Facts about Dementia and what to do, Retrieved on 31st July 2009 from;col1 peer reviewed.

Massage and Dementia, Retrieved on 31st July 2009 from

Dementia Symptoms, retrieved on 1st August 2009 from